‘…but here too, by digging a trench across, the inhabitants made access very difficult’ (1, §6)”

Parallel to the course of the wall, outside of it, is a depression running more or less in a straight line down to the stream below. This is an unlikely place for a natural wash to form, as it does not originate at the lowest point of the saddle connecting the hill of Gamla to the plateau above. Instead, it is probably the ‘trench’ referred to by Josephus that the inhabitants dug across the saddle and down the slope. Although this feature was not excavated systematically, it is still prominent in the landscape.

The top of this trench, where it should have crossed the crest of the saddle, is filled up to an unknown depth and is, probably, a ramp:

With so many skilled hands the platforms (cwm¡twn) were soon finished and the engines brought up’ (4, §17)

While cwm¡twn is variously translated as earthworks (Thackeray), banks (Whiston) or simply the necessary works (Bradshaw), it appears that the Romans constructed an earthen ramp at this spot, consisting of the flat space stretching from below the round tower to the nearest cliff, some 30 meters to the east. Although not formally excavated, over the years many ballista balls, coins and various other objects surfaced in this area, which served as the expedition camp for 14 seasons. This was the only logical choice for Vespasian to build a siege ramp.