Units from three legions took part in the siege and conquest of Gamla: the fifth Macedonica, the tenth Fretensis and the fifteenth Apollinaris. From the (mainly epigraphic) sources we know that the tenth, and probably much of the fifteenth legion was composed of Syrian troops[1]. There is of course no way to assign the material remains to specific units, but the weapons and other gear found at the site are typical of the general makeup of Roman military equipment of the first century CE. As far as I have been able to ascertain, the sheer quantity of arrowheads and ballista balls found at Gamla is unsurpassed anywhere in the Roman Empire. A preliminary analysis (see plan) shows that except at the main breach and the synagogue area, the major concentrations of arrowheads and ballista balls along the wall do not overlap.

[1] See for example Mann 1983:41 f.