In order to trace the processes that led to the transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture in the southern Levant during the Neolithic period, we have constructed a computer simulation – Ag-Sub – that has allowed us to examine the common theories, namely the archaeological interpretations explaining the circumstances of the transition to farming. The computerized simulation – despite its limitations – makes it possible to accelerate ‘processes’ and can thus be used as a tool for examining the dynamics of the period. The goal was to test the theoretical models that were proposed as an explanation for the process within a framework of a dynamic system, to run the dynamic system under varying conditions and evaluate the results that were received. The main conclusions regarding the Natufian population in the southern central part of the Levant show that the ‘social complexity’ had a decisive impact on the size of the population and that it constituted the key factor for changes that were observed in the archaeological documentation, specifically in the Early Natufian period. The gradual climatic changes that were discerned throughout the period had limited affect on the size of the population. The speed of the transition to agriculture depended to a great extent on the initial size of the hunter-gatherer population in the Geometric Kebaran period some two thousand years prior to the Natufian phenomenon and some five thousand years before the Neolithic period. It seems that the population density in the southern central Levant was a prerequisite to the series of events that led to the beginning of agriculture.