From the surveys and excavations that have been published, no archaeological remains have been found in the Negev Highlands and northeastern Sinai that date to the second millennium BCE. A multitude of human activity such as traveling on foot, grazing flocks, cultivating the soil etc do not leave any material remains behind that can be identified in an archaeological survey. Furthermore, to the extent that there are conspicuous material remains, the dating is not always simple or obvious. The remains of various aqueducts were found in the ‘Ain el-Qudeirat Valley in northeastern Sinai. Minute particles of ash in the lime-based mortar facilitated the C14 dating of three ancient aqueducts. One of them dates between the years 1673-1454 BCE (MBII or LB). The layer of ash at Tell el-Qudeirat (Qadesh Barnea’) associated with the lower fortress provided a C14 date between the years 1210-1050 BCE (Iron Age 1). In the geoarchaeological excavations in the Negev Highlands at Horbat Halukim, a thick layer of anthropogenic soil was discovered in Nahal Midurog. This soil is characterized by a composition of minute particles of ash that are homogenously mixed with the regular mineral particles in addition to the small bone particles of sheep and goats. These are the remains of the soil improvement by man who supplemented cooking waste to the soil in order to increase the fertility of the earth in the run-off based agricultural system. Very interesting C14 dating results were derived from along the stratigraphic section of the anthropogenic soil: three dates from the bottom of the section are from the Late Neolithic period (c.4700 BCE). A date of 1530-1450 BCE (MBII or LB) came from the middle of the section and above it were other dates beginning from the Late Bronze Age to the Iron Age 1.