The geographical region and the chronological boundaries.
Permanent Factors: the geographical conditions; the physiological characteristics; the principals of warfare; the spirit of man.
Varying Factors: The political and social frameworks of the military activity; technology.

The kinds of sources and their characteristics: written (literary and non-literary sources); descriptions from the realm of plastic art (reliefs, figurines etc.); tangible finds (fortifications, weapons etc.).

The tools: typology; the constant development of weapons.

The combatants: kinds (career soldiers and militia); sources of man power; interrelationship between the regime and the political-social organization and the military organization and the ways in which it is run.

Why it is impossible to reconstruct battles that were fought in the Near East in the period under discussion?

The importance of noting of quantitative aspects. For example: the size of armies and their implications on warfare and logistics; the marching capacity of armies and ability to implement earthworks.

Common mistakes.