The vaults of the Coin Department currently house more than 800,000 coins, forming an integral part of the archaeological treasures of the State of Israel (Israel State Collections). The coin collection with more than 140,000 identified specimens is continually growing with finds from numerous excavations conducted in Israel every year.

The collection spans a period of more than 2,500 years, from the invention of coinage in the 7th century BCE, to the present day. Although coins after that date are presently not considered antiquities under Israel's Antiquities Law, those found in excavations are preserved at the Coin Department for study and research.

The majority of coins preserved by the IAA Coin Department are single finds from large and small excavations. In addition, the Department holds more than 250 hoards of gold, silver and bronze coins, beginning in the Persian period through to the Ottoman period.

The collection's exceptional importance lies in the fact that the provenance of almost all the coins has been ascertained. Consequently it constitutes one the largest scientific numismatic data-bases of its kind in the world, ideally suited for in-depth study of coin-types, distribution patterns, and intra/inter-site circulation.

The nucleus of the collection is comprised of a group of 10,000 coins acquired by numismatists from purchases and excavations between 1925 –1948.

The staff of the Coin Department performs a wide range of tasks, both scientific and curatorial. Its members specialize in the identification, registration and scientific publication of coins found in excavations. Additional duties include lectures and scientific consultation for researchers and archaeologists; preparation of coin exhibits in Israel and abroad; preparation of educational material, and expert assistance to the Theft-Prevention Department.

The collection is managed on a daily basis by Donald T. Ariel (Head of the Department) , assisted by two senior curators, Gabi Bijovsky and Robert Kool.