The Crusader Period, 1099-1187 CE
Following the Crusader conquest Jerusalem became the capital of an independent kingdom. Even though it only lasted for a short period Crusader rule has left a significant mark on the city to this day. The area of today's city is identical to that of the Crusader city. The Crusaders constructed many buildings in the city, primarily churches including the "renewed" Holy Sepulcher Church, the Temple Mount and the Citadel which took on an important and central place in the city.
The system of fortifications overlapped the Fatimid city walls and it seems that only towards the end of the Crusader period, during the seventh decade of the twelfth century, did they take attend to the city walls when they were strengthened and moats were dug along the northern wall. The stream in the vicinity of Jaffa Gate was converted into a moat and David's Gate (= Jaffa Gate) was moved further west while building a new wall. The wall was built of fieldstones and ashlar stones and the cornerstones of the towers were meticulously dressed and embrasures were incorporated in them for archers. Large fortresses were built in the four corners of the city: Storks Tower (the Swan tower) is in the northeast corner, remains of a fortress which protrudes outside the tower in the Ottoman wall are in the southwest corner, Galit fortress (Burj Jalod, Tancred's Tower) is in the northwest corner and another fortress in the southeast corner. Guard towers were built at set intervals along the walls.

Remains of Crusader buildings, churches, fortifications and a deep moat along the northern side of the city, and a Crusader marketplace in the vicinity of the cardo were discovered in many excavations that were conducted after 1967.

Historical Sources:
There are many written sources including descriptions by pilgrims, church and monastic documents, as well as numerous maps.

The system of moats included moats that date to the time of the Second Temple period which were rehabilitated.

The city wall in the Crusader period
The Hague Map, a round map that is characteristic of the Crusader period
Hadashot Arkheologiyot Online Conservation of the Built Heritage in Israel Friends of the IAA The Jerusalem Archaeological Park Survey
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